Sexospécificités et migration

Aperçu

Aujourd’hui, le monde compte plus de migrants que jamais. Beaucoup de migrants sont à la recherche de nouvelles perspectives et d’une vie meilleure pour eux-mêmes et leur famille. D’autres sont contraints de se déplacer à cause de catastrophes ou de conflits. Les sexospécificités sont au cœur de toute discussion sur les causes et les conséquences de la migration régulière et irrégulière et des déplacements forcés.

On sait aujourd’hui que le sexe, les sexospécificités, l’identité sexuelle et l’orientation sexuelle d’une personne façonnent chaque étape de son expérience de la migration. Les sexospécificités agissent sur les raisons de la migration, sur qui migre, sur les réseaux sociaux utilisés par les migrants, sur les expériences en matière d’intégration et les possibilités de travail dans les lieux de destination, et sur les relations avec le pays d’origine. Les attentes, les relations et la dynamique du pouvoir associées au fait d’être un homme, une femme, un garçon ou une fille, ou au fait qu’une personne se considère comme lesbienne, gay, bisexuelle, transgenre ou intersexuée (LGBTI), interviennent dans tous les aspects du processus. En outre, l’expérience de la migration est vécue différemment par les personnes LGBTI, avec leurs propres avantages et inconvénients.

Ces faits démontrent la nécessité pour l’OIM de comprendre et évaluer la dynamique des sexospécificités, et d’y répondre. La prise en compte des tendances migratoires selon des critères de sexe est ce qui distingue un projet qui répond aux besoins et capacités de tous les bénéficiaires de l’OIM, sur un pied d’égalité, d’un projet qui ne tient pas compte de ces éléments essentiels et qui perpétue les inégalités entre les sexes. S’employer activement à intégrer l’égalité entre les sexes dans toute les activités de l’OIM signifie : plaider en faveur de l’égalité des droits au titre de la législation dans les domaines de l’emploi et de la mobilité ; lutter contre les pratiques migratoires discriminatoires ; comprendre en quoi les sexospécificités influent sur tous les aspects et types de migration ; tenir compte, dans les interventions, de la façon dont les sexospécificités influent sur l’accès aux services sociaux, la croissance économique, les capacités, les risques et les vulnérabilités ; et comprendre de quelle manière la migration influe sur les rôles attribués à chacun des deux sexes et sur l’égalité entre hommes et femmes. La prise en compte de tous ces éléments est essentielle pour permettre à l’OIM de s’acquitter de son mandat et promouvoir des migrations sûres, dignes et ordonnées pour tous.

Politique de l'OIM L'Egalité entre les sexes

Celebrating Migrant Women in a Changing World of Work

South Sudan - Along, Teresa and Pasalina own a local dairy business along the main market in Abyei town. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
After taking IOM’s livelihoods training, they decided to venture into dairy processing together, using the financial management, business practices and vocational skills they learned. “They taught us a number of recipes and ways to make milk and cheese that we did not know before,” Along explained. “One of the main things we learned was to boil the milk during the process, which is not something that is normally done here in our village. This method makes producing milk faster and safer to drink.”
The women are also related. “We all work together and depend on each other for support,” Teresa said. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Among the three of them, they have 13 children to look after and are the sole income generators for their families, having lost their husbands to war. “Business has been getting difficult lately as we have been struggling to get more supplies to make more milk,” explains Along. Like many other businesses in the area, their dependency on essential goods from the markets have made them highly vulnerable to fluctuations in prices or complete market closures due to insecurity.
South Sudan – Aluel Matiok, tailoring and wearing a dress she made for herself. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
“Before going through the training programme, I knew nothing about tailoring. I had to learn everything from the ground up. It took me seven months to learn everything but I managed to do it,” Aluel Matiok said. She participated in the tailoring and business skills training run by IOM and now shares a workshop with 13 tailors who produce and sell clothing through a cooperative agreement. Using fabric donated by IOM to help the tailors get their business off the ground, they have produced a number of garments for men and women of various sizes.
Aluel seems confident that she can overcome challenges through the help of the cooperative and IOM. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Before becoming a tailor, Aluel owned a restaurant in Abyei but found herself struggling to deal with issues such as reliance on credit payment, which meant that customers often did not pay until the end of each month. “A lot of customers paid through credit, making it difficult to maintain a profit or even have cash to buy more supplies.” Aluel is happy that her new customers only pay in cash saving her the trouble of following up on overdue payments. Nevertheless, her new business is also introducing new challenges she did not encounter before. “We don’t have a stand in the main market where we can display our clothes for sale, so for now we have to rely on customers coming out to the workshop to buy clothes which is a bit out of the way for most people,” she said.
Myanmar – Akchina, during a class for beauticians at the vocational training center in Mawlamyine. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Akchina is part of the latest class of beauticians at the vocational training centre in Mawlamyine. Akchina is currently undergoing hormone therapy to transition from male to female. She hopes that she will use the skills that she is learning to not only one day set up a beauty parlour in her local township but to also make herself into a beautiful woman.
Myanmar – Sandi runs a tailoring shop outside of her home in Hpa-An. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
As a former student of IOM’s vocational training programme, Sandi wanted to become a tailor in order to run her own business. “Where I live, it is really common to see people leave their homes and travel to places like Thailand for work, but I wanted to be able to run a business while staying close to home,” she explained. Myanmar is known to have large amounts of labour-related migration with workers - skilled and unskilled - travelling abroad to find work.
Myanmar – Sandi runs a tailoring shop outside of her home in Hpa-An. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Today, Sandi runs a business out of her home with a heavy backlog of clients requesting a range of clothing and dresses. Equipped with a sewing machine and a selection of magazine catalogues, she is one of two local tailors catering to local demand for clothing and has managed to earn a decent salary.

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