Mobility is an integral part of life in Mozambique. Mozambique is a large country with more than 53 border posts, significant transport corridors linking landlocked countries – such as Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi – to major sea ports and to the regional hub of South Africa. These transport corridors are home to mobile and migrant groups including cross border traders and long distance transporters. Historically, labour migrants work in South African mines and commercial farms. More recently, internal labour migration is on the increase as the economy opens up to extractives and energy companies. With the economy in Mozambique rapidly improving, it is beginning to experience increased migration flows into the country, particularly in the centre and north – as entry points for transit through Mozambique to South Africa, and as migrants enter to seek work with extractives companies.
Although Mozambique has been a peaceful country since the signing of the peace accord in 1992, the civil war, which peaked in the 1980s, saw large refugee flows into neighbouring countries. IOM's operations from 1994-1996 in Mozambique facilitated massive repatriation and reintegration of returning refugees and ex-combatants. In addition to post-war recovery and reconstruction, Mozambique experiences natural disasters linked to seasonal flooding of the Zambezi and Limpopo River Basins, and the touch-down of cyclones along the 2,470 km stretch of coast line. This has resulted in perennial internal displacement of thousands of families whose livelihoods and homes are destroyed when these disasters occur.
At present, there continue to be significant emergency operations, recovery and development challenges coupled with cross-cutting concerns such as the spread of HIV and AIDS, human smuggling and recent increases in irregular migration. Currently, there is a large increase in irregular migrants from the Horn of Africa. Many of these irregular migrants come from Somalia and Ethiopia and seek asylum in Mozambique. However, many also try to move onward to South Africa.
Mozambique has been a member state since 2011.
Delivering as One
Mozambique is designated as one of the eight pilot countries for the United Nations' "Delivering as One" (DaO) reform programme, in which IOM's role is increasing. IOM is a member of the UN Country Team (UNCT) and chairs the Humanitarian Country Team working group.
The UNCT and the Government of Mozambique approved the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and DaO in 2012. Three priority areas have been established to contribute to the overall development goal, which is “Reduced poverty and disparities leading to improved human development of Mozambicans, particularly the most vulnerable.” They are: (1) Governance; (2) Social Disparities; (3) Economic Disparities. IOM co-convenes the Governance Development Results Group (DRG) and the Economic DRG Outcome 3 committee on Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. Additionally, IOM is a member of the Joint Team on AIDS and several other DRG outcome groups which fall under the One UN coordination mechanisms.
IOM has ensured that the outcomes of these three focus areas (which in turn will influence the outputs) sufficiently cover the areas of IOM’s mandate and areas of intervention in Mozambique. IOM will continue to play an active role in the process of developing outputs that will ensure IOM’s continuous assistance to key partners and beneficiaries including the government and migrants in Mozambique.
Service Delivery and Capacity Building
HIV Prevention in Migration-Affected Communities in Transport Corridors in Southern Mozambique (Funded by SIDA, UNAIDS)
The southern provinces of Mozambique have some of the highest recorded levels of HIV and TB in the world. The southern region of Mozambique, which includes the capital city, Maputo, borders both South Africa and Swaziland, and features two high-traffic transport corridors which link Maputo with Johannesburg and Swazi capital Mbabane. Qualitative research undertaken by IOM and UNDP in 2012 (see below) concluded that the corridor and border towns of Namaacha, Goba, Boane, and Ressano Garcia are characterized by high levels of sex work and transactional sex. People are engaging in multiple sexual partnerships with inconsistent condom use, despite having good knowledge of HIV prevention, and high reported uptake of HIV testing.
IOM Mozambique partners with UNFPA and UNICEF to implement a set of combination prevention activities targeting migration-affected communities along the southern transport corridors. The project aims to reduce the vulnerability to HIV of women and girls in hotspots along this corridor.
IOM is working with two local organizations: the Mozambican Association for the Development of the Family (AMODEFA) and the Coalition for Mozambican Youth (COALIZÃO). These organizations are implementing on-the-ground activities to address HIV vulnerabilities related to migration. In March 2013, IOM ran a six-day training for AMODEFA and COALIZÃO senior trainers and other local stakeholders including community radios, using the IOM Gender, Migration and HIV curriculum.
In July, AMODEFA begins training a pool of change agents to integrate Gender, Migration and HIV into their community mobilization and communications activities. Following the trainings, and with technical support from IOM, AMODEFA and COALIZÃO will establish District Dialogue Groups bringing together a broad spectrum of community stakeholders (traditional and religious leaders, peer educators, district authorities, school staff, civil society, health care personnel and migration officials). The groups will meet monthly to discuss issues relating to the health of their community, especially HIV and AIDS, and issues around migration, including addressing stigma relating to migrant health.
To access the research reports Risks and Vulnerability to HIV: Analysis of Key Determinants along the Nacala Transport Corridor (July 2012) and Determinants of HIV in Key Hotspots on the Southern Corridor: Maputo to Swaziland (April 2012), please go to: www.iom.org.za.
Community-Based Responses Targeting Prospective and Ex-mineworkers, their Families and Communities in Selected Mine-Sending Areas in Mozambique
Under a PEPFAR/USAID project, IOM partners with TEBA – the main recruitment agency for the mining houses in South Africa – to provide technical assistance to implement HIV and TB prevention, home-based care, and orphans and vulnerable children services using IOM’s health promotion model. The project is implemented in Gaza Province.
During the months of January to June, IOM facilitated community trainings for: (a) 125 community, traditional and religious leaders in Gender Based Violence (GBV) in five districts in partnership with Women and Law in Southern Africa (WLSA), (b) 30 community volunteers on Nutrition and Positive Prevention and (c) trained 25 community volunteer 4 field officers and 3 coordinators on nutrition, in partnership with Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA), that was followed by community demonstrations of good cooking practices.
Additionally, after joint USAID, IOM and TEBA management meetings, IOM supported TEBA’s process of revising and harmonizing the project work-plans for Prevention, Home Based Care (HBC) and Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). IOM and TEBA drafted guidelines for volunteer OVC and HBC visits, adapted the national Ministry of Women and Social Action protocols for OVC visits and developed a guide for community communication session for volunteers. IOM also lead and organized the commemoration of World Tuberculosis (TB) day in partnership with the Provincial Health Department.
IOM Mozambique has entered into partnership with the National AIDS Council (NAC) to implement a SADC-funded study of the determinants of HIV in a Port Community in Mozambique. IOM works closely with the National AIDS Council (CNCS) and the Country Technical Steering Committee (CTSC) made up of the Ministry of Health, National Aids Council, the Association of Entrepreneurs against AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis (EcoSIDA). Field work begins in Beira Port in August 2013.
Assessment of the Impact of Extractive Industries on HIV in Tete Province
IOM, in partnership with UNICEF, UNFPA, UNAIDS and the National Aids Council, is developing a joint study to assess the HIV-related impact of the growth in extractive industries in Tete Province. IOM is responsible for the quantitative part of the study through which an online tool will be developed to generate data reports and projections regarding the impact of the expansion of the extractive industry. This tool combines data from different sectors, including general demographic and health data, data on the numbers and types of health facilities and health services, to provide an overview of epidemiological and social impacts. The tool is expected to be online by September 2013.
Advocacy and Coordination
Technical Support to Global Fund R9 Phase 2 Preparation
IOM is the convener of the Prevention Working Group in the UN's Joint Team on AIDS. In this role, the CCM requested IOM to lead a process of technical support to the clarification of the prevention component of the Global Fund Round 9 Phase 2 proposal. This involved coordinating different agencies to assist the Prime Recipient and Sub Recipients to clarify their plans in the area of prevention, which were submitted to the Global Fund board in Geneva. As well as coordinating inputs, IOM took the lead in advising on HIV prevention with mobile populations and migration-affected communities, which is the main focus of the prevention component of the proposal.
HIV and Emergencies
In January 2013 massive floods in Gaza Province led to the displacement of around 150,000 people. The regions affected have an extremely high prevalence of HIV (likely 1 in 3 adults is living with HIV), however HIV was not comprehensively addressed in the humanitarian response. To ensure that this does not happen in future humanitarian responses in Mozambique, the UN and key partners have come together to establish a platform to address HIV and GBV in humanitarian emergencies, in which IOM has a key role in capacity building at the Central and Provincial levels.
Operations, Emergencies and Post-crisis
The flooding in January 2013 in Gaza Province along the Limpopo River, resulted in the displacement of over 150,000 people with the southern provinces seeing the worst effects and further affecting an additional 300,000 people. This resulted in the loss of human lives, livestock, crops, and household assets. With the closure of emergency camps in late February and early March, populations were offered the choice between return and relocation. Large numbers have returned, but almost 5,000 families have relocated as they were living in high-risk zones and have lost their homes and livelihoods entirely.
IOM works with the National Institute for Disaster Management (INGC) to provide necessary coordination, distribution, and information management support. Funding from the UN Central Emergency Relief Fund (CERF), the US Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and Canadian International Development Assistance (CIDA) allowed IOM to provide immediate relief commodities to over 10,000 families since January.
Additionally, through funding from the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO), IOM Mozambique implements a Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) to track movements, distribution and needs gaps, and population numbers in return and relocation sites throughout Gaza Province. The DTM is tracking 21 origin sites and 23 relocation sites, assessing gaps in services for a total of 113,698 IDPs. ECHO funding will allow IOM to install lighting in high-impact relocations sites (over 1000 families), two police posts with domestic violence and abuse units (one-stop-shops), 15 water points and 8 community centres with information posts.
Camp Coordination Camp Management (CCCM)
With funding from OFDA through a regional project based in Namibia, IOM is working with INGC to improve emergency preparedness and risk reduction capacity. In June, IOM successfully concluded two Training of Trainers certification workshops in Camp Coordination Camp Management (CCCM) with 50 government officials from National, Provincial and District levels. The programme participants committed to training an additional 2000 Mozambican government and NGO counterparts, and immediately put the training to use in planned training of disaster risk management committees and civil protection units. Additionally, high-level government representatives requested that IOM share the database of trained trainers to create a formal emergency roster for CCCM disaster management actors to be called for government service immediately following natural disasters.
Visit mozambiqe.iom.int to receive the latest DTM reports and CCCM outputs.
UN Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation (DRR and CCA) with Gaza Radio
In April, IOM signed a contract with Community Media for Development (CMFD) to begin a roll-out of DRR and CCA training for community radio stations. Intense training and mentorship will occur with four Gaza stations, including production and investigative journalism activities. CMFD began production of “Programme 0” to use as a tool for training community stations on creation of a 15-minute, high-quality report on post-disaster activities, reconstruction and resilience. Stations will be asked to create bi-monthly reports for six months following the training, with a focus on emergency and recovery sectors in Gaza Province, and interactive programming to involve communities and relocation site members. Intense training and mentorship will occur with four Gaza stations, including production and investigative journalism activities.
Labour Migration and Human Development
Institutional Capacity-Building for Diaspora Engagement in Mozambique
Under an IOM Development Fund project, IOM Mozambique is providing financial and technical assistance to the Government of Mozambique to build capacity for Diaspora engagement through a partnership with the Institute for the Support of Mozambican Communities in the Exterior (INACE) in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Since the beginning of 2013, IOM placed a programme assistant in the Government partner, INACE and began inter-ministerial training in Migration and Development. The team is made up of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Women and Social Action, Ministry of Labour, Department of Immigration in the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Public works, and the Customs department. The steering committee members conducted a study tour to Cape Verde in June to learn about their Diaspora Engagement Programme. Additionally, an inter-ministerial roundtable meeting is planned for later this year to develop an agreed way-forward to establish a national consultation on Diaspora engagement.
Immigration and Border Management
Capacity Building for Border Management (European Commission)
This project provides a cross-border approach to combat irregular migration and establish a border management system along Mozambique’s Northern border with Tanzania. This project is a regional initiative that includes Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia.
IOM and the Migration Directorate finalized the technical upgrades for four border posts in Namoto, Negomano, and the airports in Mocimboa da Praia and Pemba. Additionally, five Senior Immigration Officers were trained on identity management in Dar es Salaam in February of 2013, and two senior staff attended the 4th cross-border meeting in Lilongue, Malawi. IOM is currently procuring equipment to upgrade the Maputo Airport with the same system after an urgent government request.
Capacity Building to Respond to Mixed Migration
In the context of increasing mixed migration flows, in particular from the Horn of Africa and South Asia, the Government of Mozambique has recognized the need to manage migration in a protection-sensitive manner. The UN has committed to support the Government of Mozambique to strengthen its response to the challenges of mixed migration and ultimately improve protection of the most vulnerable migrants including asylum seekers.
Implemented under the Governance Development Results Group, Outcome 6 of the United Nations Development Assistance Framework, the aims of the project are: to establish an inter-ministerial task force to coordinate the government’s response to mixed migration; to undertake a review of existing legislation relating to mixed migration in Mozambique, and make recommendations for reform; to develop Standard Operating Procedures for border officials to manage mixed migration flows, including referral mechanisms to enhance protection of vulnerable migrants.
IOM is presently working with UNHCR and the Embassies of the United States and other countries to assist Embassies of the United States and other countries to assist refugees to meet mandatory requirements for resettlement in those nations. IOM also organizes logistical support and travel arrangements and facilitates medical examinations. Since January 2013, IOM has assisted 222 refugees with medical examinations for resettlement. To date, 94 have been resettled to the USA, 26 to Australia, and 3 to Canada.
Counter Trafficking Assistance
IOM’s Counter trafficking assistance aims to prevent trafficking in persons and protect trafficked persons, while supporting governmental and non-governmental stakeholders to develop their capacities to combat human trafficking effectively. In coordination with the Regional Office, IOM Maputo assists in the repatriation and resettlement of victims of trafficking.
Main text: September 2013
Facts and figures: August 2014