Género y migración

Líneas generales

Hoy, como nunca antes, se observa la creciente movilidad de las personas en todas partes del mundo. Muchas de ellas buscan nuevas oportunidades y una vida mejor tanto para sí mismos como para sus familiares. Otras se ven forzadas a desplazarse debido a desastres o conflictos. Las cuestiones de género son primordiales en cualquier debate sobre las causas y consecuencias de la migración regular e irregular y el desplazamiento forzado.

Ya se sabe que el sexo, la identidad de género y la orientación sexual de las personas configuran cada etapa de la experiencia migratoria. El género afecta los motivos por los cuales se opta por migrar, quién migra, las redes sociales a las que recurren los migrantes para migrar, las experiencias de integración y las oportunidades laborales en el lugar de destino, así como las relaciones con el país de origen. Las expectativas, las relaciones y la dinámica de poder asociadas con el hecho de ser hombre, mujer, niña o niño, y de identificarse ya sea como lesbiana, homosexual, bisexual, transexual o intersexual, pueden incidir considerablemente en todos los aspectos de este proceso. Las personas que se identifican con una de las categorías antes enunciadas también experimentan la migración de manera diferente, lo que trae consigo una serie inherente de ventajas y desventajas.

Todo ello demuestra la necesidad de que la OIM comprenda, evalúe y responda a la dinámica de género. El tener debidamente en cuenta las tendencias migratorias por género puede marcar la pauta entre llevar a cabo un proyecto que aborde con éxito las necesidades y capacidades de los beneficiarios de la OIM por igual, o que no logre encarar esos elementos fundamentales y perpetúe la desigualdad de género. Incluir la igualdad de género de manera proactiva en toda la labor de la OIM significa: promover derechos equitativos en el marco de la ley en los entornos laborales y de movilidad; luchar contra las prácticas migratorias discriminatorias; comprender cómo las cuestiones de género inciden en todos los aspectos y categorías de la migración; conocer y reaccionar a la manera en que las cuestiones de género configuran el acceso a los servicios sociales, el crecimiento económico, las capacidades, los riesgos y vulnerabilidades; y entender cómo la migración incide en las funciones de género y en la igualdad de género. La adopción de todas estas medidas es esencial para el mandato de la OIM y está intrínsecamente ligada a la promoción de una migración segura, humana y ordenada para todos.

Política de la OIM sobre la Igualidad de Género

Celebrating Migrant Women in a Changing World of Work

South Sudan - Along, Teresa and Pasalina own a local dairy business along the main market in Abyei town. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
After taking IOM’s livelihoods training, they decided to venture into dairy processing together, using the financial management, business practices and vocational skills they learned. “They taught us a number of recipes and ways to make milk and cheese that we did not know before,” Along explained. “One of the main things we learned was to boil the milk during the process, which is not something that is normally done here in our village. This method makes producing milk faster and safer to drink.”
The women are also related. “We all work together and depend on each other for support,” Teresa said. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Among the three of them, they have 13 children to look after and are the sole income generators for their families, having lost their husbands to war. “Business has been getting difficult lately as we have been struggling to get more supplies to make more milk,” explains Along. Like many other businesses in the area, their dependency on essential goods from the markets have made them highly vulnerable to fluctuations in prices or complete market closures due to insecurity.
South Sudan – Aluel Matiok, tailoring and wearing a dress she made for herself. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
“Before going through the training programme, I knew nothing about tailoring. I had to learn everything from the ground up. It took me seven months to learn everything but I managed to do it,” Aluel Matiok said. She participated in the tailoring and business skills training run by IOM and now shares a workshop with 13 tailors who produce and sell clothing through a cooperative agreement. Using fabric donated by IOM to help the tailors get their business off the ground, they have produced a number of garments for men and women of various sizes.
Aluel seems confident that she can overcome challenges through the help of the cooperative and IOM. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Before becoming a tailor, Aluel owned a restaurant in Abyei but found herself struggling to deal with issues such as reliance on credit payment, which meant that customers often did not pay until the end of each month. “A lot of customers paid through credit, making it difficult to maintain a profit or even have cash to buy more supplies.” Aluel is happy that her new customers only pay in cash saving her the trouble of following up on overdue payments. Nevertheless, her new business is also introducing new challenges she did not encounter before. “We don’t have a stand in the main market where we can display our clothes for sale, so for now we have to rely on customers coming out to the workshop to buy clothes which is a bit out of the way for most people,” she said.
Myanmar – Akchina, during a class for beauticians at the vocational training center in Mawlamyine. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Akchina is part of the latest class of beauticians at the vocational training centre in Mawlamyine. Akchina is currently undergoing hormone therapy to transition from male to female. She hopes that she will use the skills that she is learning to not only one day set up a beauty parlour in her local township but to also make herself into a beautiful woman.
Myanmar – Sandi runs a tailoring shop outside of her home in Hpa-An. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
As a former student of IOM’s vocational training programme, Sandi wanted to become a tailor in order to run her own business. “Where I live, it is really common to see people leave their homes and travel to places like Thailand for work, but I wanted to be able to run a business while staying close to home,” she explained. Myanmar is known to have large amounts of labour-related migration with workers - skilled and unskilled - travelling abroad to find work.
Myanmar – Sandi runs a tailoring shop outside of her home in Hpa-An. @IOM/Muse Mohammed
Today, Sandi runs a business out of her home with a heavy backlog of clients requesting a range of clothing and dresses. Equipped with a sewing machine and a selection of magazine catalogues, she is one of two local tailors catering to local demand for clothing and has managed to earn a decent salary.

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International Women's Day 2017

Día Internacional de la Mujer en 2017