This chapter provides an analysis of the existing evidence on the relationships between migration, violent extremism and social exclusion. It provides a brief overview of definitions and data, emphasizing the need for analytical clarity, pointing to a shortage of reliable data, and highlighting the challenge of distinguishing causation from correlation. A simple typology of the intersections between migration and violent extremism is developed, following the logic of the “migration cycle” from departure to settlement and at times return.

The chapter highlights implications for further policy debate: the need for closer dialogue between policymakers responsible for migration and those charged with preventing violent extremism; developing more effective integration and social inclusion policies required to reduce social exclusion and the risk of radicalization to violent extremist agendas amongst migrants and their descendants; and developing a better analytical framework, based on better definitions, more comprehensive data and empirical evidence in order to support more rigorous analysis and inform policy.