strategic vision

Type: Inter-regional forum on migration (regions covered: Africa -Europe)

Established: 2006


The Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development (Rabat Process) brings together European and African countries from North, West and Central Africa, as well as the European Commission (EC) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), with a view to tackling questions arising from migration issues. The Rabat Process provides a framework for consultation and coordination; contributes to meeting the challenges posed by migration; and encourages opportunities for exchange and development. 


Current Thematic Focus

The 6th Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development, held on 13-14 December 2022, defined the multi-annual cooperation programme of the Rabat Process for the period of 2023-2027, as the "Cadiz Political Declaration and Action Plan 2023-2027". The Cadiz Programme is a non-binding cooperation framework that helps coordinate national efforts in the area of migration management and shapes the focus and priorities of the Rabat Process and its partner countries.

The Cadiz Action Plan addresses 5 action areas, containing 10 specific objectives and 29 related actions. The Cadiz Programme maintains continuity while adapting its objectives and actions to the evolved international context. It also pays attention to ensuring complementarity and synergies with other frameworks, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration and the Global Compact on Refugees.

Area 1: Development benefits of migration / Root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement

1. Maximise the positive impact of regular migration (+3 actions)

2. Understand the root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement (+2 actions)


Area 2: Regular migration and mobility 

3. Promote regular migration & mobility (especially young people, women) (+5 actions)

4. Encourage facilitation of visa issuance procedures (+2 actions)


Area 3: Protection and asylum 

5a. Enhance the protection of refugees and the forcibly displaced (+3 actions)

5b. Promote actions to respect the dignity and the human rights of migrants (+2 actions)

6. Promote the integration of refugees and the forcibly displaced into host communities (+2 actions)


Area 4: Irregular migration, migrant smuggling and trafficking in human beings (THB) 

7. Strengthen capacities for border management and combating migrant smuggling and THB (+3 actions)

8. Improve the protection of smuggled migrants, persons in need of international protection, and victims of THB (+3 actions)


Area 5: Return, readmission and reintegration 

9. Strengthen capacities for identification processes and the issuance of travel documents (+2 actions)

10. Encourage programmes for the safe return and sustainable reintegration of migrants (+2 actions)

The Network of Focal Points

Each national administration and organization involved in the Rabat Process is represented by a Focal Point. These contact points share their knowledge at the dialogue meetings or identify national experts to do so in order to always ensure their country's high quality technical inputs to these meetings. The network of focal points is the backbone of the Rabat Process and contributes significantly to the continuing success of the dialogue. 

Steering Committee

The Steering Committee is the strategic governing body of the Rabat Process. Its role is to stimulate cooperation between participating States, to prepare the political orientation of the dialogue and to follow up on the implementation of the ministerial declarations. It included five African countries (Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Morocco and Senegal) and five European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal and Spain), as well as the European Commission and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS ). The Steering Committee guides the dialogue according to its “Operating Modalities” and the priorities established at the different levels of dialogue. 

Reference Countries

A system of reference countries partners to volunteer to coordinate and undertake activities within a particular domain of the Cadiz Political Declaration and Action Plan, in collaboration with other reference countries. This system enables countries to take ownership of the Cadiz Political Declaration and Action Plan, promotes coordination between partner countries, and strengthens the geographical balance and representation of all interests.

Current reference countries:

  • Domain 1: Nigeria
  • Domain 2: Cabo Verde and Portugal
  • Domain 3: Chad, Switzerland
  • Domain 4: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger and Spain
  • Domain 5: Cameroon and Togo

For more information, visit the Rabat Process website .

The Chair

The Steering Committee is presided by its chair, who is also the Rabat Process Chair. The chair rotates periodically between the African and European members of the Steering Committee, which contributes to the dialogue's balanced governance. The purpose and duty of the chair is to contribute to the advancement of the dialogue, foster ownership, and maintain the momentum created at dialogue meetings.

A rotating Chair system is in place, whereby the Chair alternates between African and European member States of the Steering Committee.

  • Incoming Chair: Portugal (2024)
  • Current Chair: Morocco (2022-2023)
  • Past Chairs: Spain (2021-2022), Equatorial Guinea (2021), France (2019-2020), Burkina Faso (2018), Belgium (2017), Mali (2016)


The Secretariat was established to facilitate the dialogue process and generally focuses on three areas:

  • Support to the dialogue via the organization of meetings and the development of communication tools
  • Coordination, knowledge management, sharing of good practices among the dialogue partners
  • Additional activities aimed at building the capacities of partner countries to support the implementation of the objectives set in the dialogue strategic framework

The Secretariat is currently funded by the European Union and implemented by the International Center for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) in the framework of the project “Support to Africa-EU Migration and Mobility Dialogue (MMD)” Program (2015-2026).



Member Countries

Rabat Process refers the countries as “Partners” (57 Countries including: 26 African Countries, 29 European Countries and 2 Observer African countries)

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Benin
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Cabo Verde
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Congo
  • Cote d‘Ivoire
  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Greece
  • Guinea
  • Guinea Equatorial
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liberia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco
  • Netherlands
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Republic of Cyprus
  • Romania
  • Sao Tomé and Principe
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Togo



Member Organizations 

[Rabat Process refers to these as “Partner Oorganizations”] (2 organizations)

Chairing country

A rotating Chair system is in place whereby the Chair alternates between African and European member States of the Steering Committee.

  • Current Chair: Portugal (2024)
  • Past Chairs: Morocco (2022-2023), Spain (2021-2022), Equatorial Guinea (2021), France (2019-2020), Burkina Faso (2018), Belgium (2017), Mali (2016)

Observer Countries (2 countries) 

  • Algeria
  • Lybia

Permanent Observer Organizations (4 Organizations) 

  • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
  • International Organisation for Migration (IOM)
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
  • United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR)

    The Rabat Process Secretariat has organised a series of consultations with international organisations, civil society and the academia in order to include their perspective and recommendations in the elaboration of the next political declaration and action plan 2018-2020.

    • October 19-20, 2023, The Hague, the Netherlands, Thematic Meeting on Migration, Youth and Development
    • September 20-21, 2023, Geneva, Switzerland, Thematic Meeting on separation of families and missing persons in the context of migration: prevention, tracing, and reunification
    • June 22-23, 2023, Marrakesh, Morocco, Thematic Meeting on Humanised Border Management
    • April 25-26, 2023, Yaoundé, Cameroon, Workshop on Voluntary return and reintegration
    • February 21, 2023, Brussels, Belgium, Rabat Process Steering Committee Meeting
    • December 14, 2022, Cádiz, Spain, Rabat Process 6th Ministerial Conference
    • December 13, 2022, Cádiz, Spain, Rabat Process Senior Officials’ MeetingApril 20-21, 2021, Paris, France, Senior Officials' Meeting
    • April 19, 2021, Paris, France, Thematic Workshop on Migration and Development
    • December 15, 2020, Virtual Event, Joint Steering Committee Meeting of the Khartoum Process and the Rabat Process on the Update of the Joint Valletta Action Plan (JVAP) 
    • October 28, 2020, Virtual Event, Coordination meeting with reference countries 
    • October 15 2020, Virtual Event, Steering Committee meeting
    • September 16, 2020, Virtual Event, Webinar on the Assessment of Anti-Trafficking Gaps, Needs and Transferrable Practices in the Member States of ECOWAS and Mauritania
    • February 18, 2020, Brussels, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting 
    • November 13, 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting on Joint Valetta Action Plan
    • November 2019, Abuja, Nigeria, Technical Workshop on Remittances and Sustainable Development
    • October 24, 2019 , Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Workshop on the fight against migrant smuggling
    • September 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting
    • July 1-2, 2019, Madrid, Spain, Thematic Meeting on border management
    • June 3, 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting (Handover Chairmanship to France)
    • February 12-13, 2019, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Senior Officials Meeting / Launch of Marrakesh Action Plan 2018-2020
    • February 11, 2019, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Steering Committee Meeting
    • January 23, 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting
    • November 14-15, 2018, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Joint Valetta Action Plan Senior Officials' Meeting
    • October 23-24, 2018, Paris, France, Thematic Meeting on the Root Causes of Irregular Migration
    • May 2, 2018, Marrakesh, Morocco, 5th Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development
    • May 1, 2018, Marrakesh, Morocco, Senior Officials Meeting
    • April 30, 2018, Marrakesh, Morocco, Rabat Process Steering Committee
    • January 25, 2018, Brussels, Belgium, Rabat Process Steering Committee
    • October 24-25, 2017, Accra, Ghana, Senior Officials Meeting (SOM)
    • May 2-3, 2017, Brussels, Belgium, Senior Officials Meeting (SOM)
    • February 8-9, 2017, Malta, Senior Officials Meeting (SOM) on State of Play Implementation of the Joint Valletta Action Plan, St . Julian's
    • November 30-1 December, 2016, Praia, Cabo Verde Technical Meeting on Visa Facilitation
    • October 5-6, 2016, Bamako, Mali, Thematic Meeting on diaspora engagement strategies
    • June 21-22, 2016, Brussels, Belgium, Expert level stock-taking event on the implementation of the Valletta Action Plan.
    • May 31-June 1, 2016, Brussels, Belgium, Thematic Meeting on return, readmission and reintegration.
    • December 3-4, 2015, Porto, Portugal Thematic Meeting on Trafficking in Human Beings and Migrant Smuggling
    • December 2, 2015, Porto, Portugal Meeting of High Level Representatives of the Rabat Process
    • June, 15-16, 2015, Rabat, Morocco, Thematic Meeting on asylum and international protection in the Rabat Process Region
    • November 27, 2014, Rome, Italy, Fourth Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development
    • June 26-27, 2014, Rome, Italy, Senior Officials Meeting
    • June 6, 2012, Meeting of high level representatives' follow-up to the 3rd Euro-African Ministerial conference on migration and development
    • November 23, 2011, Dakar, Senegal, 3rd Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development
    • November 25, 2008, Paris, France, 2nd Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development
    • July 10-11, 2006, Rabat, Morocco, 1st Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development.
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