Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development (Rabat Process)


Type: Inter-regional forum on migration (regions covered: Africa -Europe)

Established: 2006

The Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development (Rabat Process) brings together European and African countries from North, West and Central Africa, as well as the European Commission (EC) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), with a view to tackling questions arising from migration issues. The Rabat Process provides a framework for consultation and coordination; contributes to meeting the challenges posed by migration; and encourages opportunities for exchange and development. 

Current Thematic Focus
There are currently four thematic pillars. Irregular migration, and migration & development were recognised as the two priority areas under the Rome declaration and action plan 2015-2017.

  1. Organising legal migration and mobility
  2. Improving border management and preventing and combating irregular migration
  3. Strengthening the synergies between migration and development
  4. Promoting international protection

Member States [Rabat Process refers to these as “partner States”] (57 States, including 27 African countries and 31 European countries)

Austria Ivory Coast
Belgium Latvia
Benin Liberia
Bulgaria Lithuania
Burkina Faso Luxembourg
Cameroon Mali
Cape Verde Malta
Central African Republic Morocco
Chad Mauritania
Croatia Netherlands
Cyprus Niger
Czech Republic Nigeria
Democratic Republic of Congo Norway
Denmark Poland
Estonia Portugal
Finland Republic of the Congo
France Romania
Gabon São Tomé and Príncipe
Gambia Senegal
Germany Sierra Leone
Ghana Slovakia
Greece Slovenia
Guinea-Bissau Spain
Guinea Sweden
Equatorial-Guinea Switzerland
Hungary Togo
Iceland Tunisia
Irland United Kingdom

* Since the Rabat Process Ministerial Conference, held in November 2014, Egypt and Libya are no longer members of the Rabat Process. The option to join again remains open to them.

Member Organizations [Rabat Process refers to these as “partner organizations”] (2 organizations)
European Commission
Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Chairing country
A rotating Chair system is in place whereby the Chair alternates between African and European member States of the Steering Committee.
Current Chair: France
Past Chairs: Burikina Faso (2018), Belgium (2017), Mali (2016)

Observer States (1 country)


Observer Organizations (9 organizations)
African Development Bank
EU External Borders Agency (Frontex)
International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
International Labour Organization (ILO)
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
World Bank

Steering Committee
The Steering Committee’s role is to stimulate cooperation between participating States, to prepare the political orientation of the dialogue and to follow up on the implementation of the ministerial declarations”).  It comprises five African countries (Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Morocco and Senegal) and five European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal and Spain), as well as the European Commission and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).  The Steering Committee guides the dialogue according to its “Operating Modalities” and the priorities established at the different levels of dialogue. 
Within the Steering Committee States are referred to as “member States”, whereas when discussing the dialogue they are referred to as “partner States”.

The Network of Focal Points
Each member State or member organisation is represented by a Focal Point.

The Secretariat was established to facilitate the dialogue process via the support of technical and political meetings and the development of communication tools; and support its operational implementation through capacity building activities for partner countries and monitoring initiatives and policies.
The European Union (EU) funds a Project supporting the Rabat Process (renewed in four cycles since 2008), the current phase of which is implemented by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), in close cooperation with the members of the Steering Committee and the Chair of the dialogue.  Each cycle focuses on clear objectives via the implementation of specific activities. The current cycle is the fourth phase of the Support Project and covers the period 2015-2018.  The previous phase was implemented by a consortium formed by ICMPD and the International and Ibero-American Foundation for Administration and Public Policies (FIIAPP). 

Contact Information



The Rabat Process Secretariat has organised a series of consultations with international organisations, civil society and the academia in order to include their perspective and recommendations in the elaboration of the next political declaration and action plan 2018-2020.

  • December 2019, Steering Committee Meeting on Joint Valetta Action Plan
  • November 2019, Nigeria, Presentation of the Guide on Diaspora Engagement Strategies
  • November 2019, Abuja, Nigeria, Technical Workshop on Remittances and Sustainable Development
  • September 2019, Steering Committee Meeting
  • July 1-2, 2019, Madrid, Spain, Thematic Meeting on border management
  • June 3, 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting (Handover Chairmanship to France)
  • February 12-13, 2019, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Senior Officials Meeting/ Launch of Marrakesh Action Plan 2018-2020
  • February 11, 2019, Burkina Faso, Steering Committee Meeting
  • January 23, 2019, Belgium, Steering Committee Meeting
  • November 14-15, 2018, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Joint Valetta Action Plan Senior Officials’ Meeting
  • October 23-24, 2018, Paris, France, Thematic Meeting on the Root Causes of Irregular Migration
  • September 27, 2018, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 5th Senior Officials Meeting “Human Mobility in Central Asia: Rights of vulnerable migrants and refugees and new opportunities for regional cooperation” 
  • May 3, 2018, Marrakesh, Morocco, 5th Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development
  • May 2, 2018, Marrakesh, Morocco, Senior Officials Meeting
  • April 30, 2018, Marrakesh, Morocco, Rabat Process Steering Committee
  • January 25, 2018, Brussels, Belgium, Rabat Process Steering Committee
  • October 24-25, 2017, Accra, Ghana, Senior Officials Meeting (SOM).
  • May 2-3, 2017, Brussels, Belgium, Senior Officials Meeting (SOM).
  • February 8-9, 2017, Malta, Senior Officials Meeting (SOM) on State of Play Implementation of the Joint Valletta Action Plan, St. Julian's.
  • Bamako, Mali, Thematic Meeting on diaspora engagement strategies.
  • November 30-1 December, 2016, Praia, Cabo Verde Technical Meeting on Visa Facilitation.
  • June 21-22, 2016, Brussels, Belgium, Expert level stock-taking event on the implementation of the Valletta Action Plan.
  • June 21-22, 2016, Brussels, Belgium, Expert level stock-taking event on the implementation of the Valletta Action Plan.
  • May 31-June 1, 2016, Brussels, Belgium, Thematic Meeting on return, readmission and reintegration.
  • December 3-4, 2015, Thematic Meeting on Trafficking in Human Beings and Migrant Smuggling.
  • December 2, 2015, Meeting of High Level Representatives of the Rabat Process.
  • June, 15-16, 2015, Thematic Meeting on asylum and international protection in the Rabat Process Region.
  • November 27, 2014, Fourth Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development.
  • June 26-27, 2014, Senior Officials Meeting.
  • June 6, 2012, Meeting of high level representatives’ follow-up to the 3rd Euro-African Ministerial conference on migration and development.
  • November, 2011, 3rd Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development.
  • November 2008, 2nd Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development.
  • July 2006, 1st Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development.

Principal Documents


2019-2020 Calendar of Activities- Meetings & Milestones
Analysis Report in preparation for the Joint Valletta Action Plan
Rome Declaration 2014 and Programme 2015-2017
Valletta Action Plan
Rabat Process 10 years brochureA Decade of Dialogue on Migration and Development
The Evolution of the Rabat Process
Rabat Process factsheet
Stocktaking report on the implementation of the Rome Programme
Rabat Process Analysis Report on Joint Valletta Action Plan
Joint Rabat Process and Khartoum Process Conclusions of the 2017 Valletta Summit on Migration and the Joint Valletta Action Plan