Because of inadequate labour migration management, Madagascar still factors as an important source country for trafficking in persons (TiP). Within Madagascar, TiP takes the form of domestic servitude, prostitution, forced begging, and forced labour, both in rural and urban areas. Internationally, Malagasy women and men have been reported to be trafficked for sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, as well as exploitation in textile factories and the fishing industry.
IOM’s counter-trafficking programme contributes to the Government of Madagascar and Civil Society Organizations’ efforts to improve national capacity in coordinating the anti-trafficking response, preventing TiP, protecting victims of TiP, and prosecuting traffickers. Within this programme, IOM conducts activities focused on strengthening of the judicial system, institutionalization of a national referral mechanism for trafficking cases, improving TiP data collection and reporting as well as the provision of direct emergency and reintegration assistance to victims of TiP.
Labour Migration Programme
With more than 70 per cent of Madagascar’s population living in extreme poverty, the search of an employment abroad continues to represent an attractive opportunity. While labour migration can be a positive agent for development when well-managed, it also presents challenges to ensuring that the rights of Malagasy migrant workers are protected, and that labour migration management is concerted and responds to national development priorities.
IOM works closely with relevant ministries, and under the leadership of the Ministry of Labour, supporting the Government through razing awareness of the national stakeholders on key concepts of labour migration, building their capacities on the elaboration of bilateral labour agreements, facilitating development and adoption of national policies on labour migration strategies in Madagascar and supporting exchanges between national stakeholders in charge of labour migration governance and their counterparts abroad.
Diaspora Engagement Programme
The Malagasy Diaspora, in its diversity, presents significant but still largely untapped potentials for engagement and contribution in meeting the challenges of sustainable national development, given its generally high levels of education, professional successes, dynamism, and creativity.
In support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, IOM implements activities to establish the sustainable and productive engagement of the Malagasy Diaspora for national development. Such activities include holding consultation sessions on diaspora engagement and mobilization, conducting studies profiling Malagasy Diaspora abroad and developing and institutionalizing a youth diaspora volunteers’ programme to build links and engage with rural communities of Madagascar, and to contribute to their local development initiatives.
Migration and Health Programme
Health is a basic human right and an essential component of sustainable development. Being and staying healthy is a fundamental precondition for migrants to work, to be productive and to contribute to the social and economic development of their communities of origin and destination. The migration cycle can expose migrants to health issues including increased vulnerability to communicable diseases, mental health issues, occupational health and safety conditions and negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
IOM’s work and advocacy in Madagascar focus on ensuring that the concrete manifestations of the interdependence between human mobility and public health are taken into account and streamlined to public health frameworks. IOM participates in activities aimed at preventing disease outbreaks, rationalizing health screenings efforts through the roll out of Population Mobility Mapping (PMM) tools, enhancing health surveillance capacities along key internal mobility flow points, and at principal international Ports of Entry (PoEs) such as airports and ports.
Migration, Environment, and Climate Change Programme
With 80 per cent of the population relying on agriculture as a primary source of income, one of the main challenges lies in the high vulnerability to the devastating effects of environmental disasters and climate change. Madagascar remains one of the most economically impacted countries in the world from natural disasters and one of the most likely to be negatively affected by climate change.
IOM seeks to inform the formulation of national policies and operational planning on Migration, Environment and Climate Change, through conducting country assessments and increasing the awareness of the local stakeholders on the interdependence between migration and environmental changes. IOM has also supported the creation of the Internal Migration Observatory, the first research centre and platform of reference, exchange and capacity building on internal migration in Madagascar.
Emergency and Post Crisis Programme
As Madagascar is regularly affected by natural disasters, IOM seeks to provide actionable and timely information on disaster-related population displacement in the country, respond to humanitarian emergencies, and support prevention and adaptation strategies to reduce incidences of displacement from occurring.
IOM provided robust shelter assistance to communities most affected by the 2017 Intense Tropical Cyclone Enawo, rolled-out the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) tools to track and report on drought-induced displacement from and within the “Grand Sud”, and facilitated community-based dialogues in the areas particularly affected by the migratory outflow to develop and implement effective community stabilization initiatives. IOM also implements activities aimed at restoring the authority of the State and security forces in southern areas affected by banditry, through the construction of postes avancés for the Gendermerie Nationale and the promotion of a positive engagement between the local population and security forces.
Immigration and Border Management Programme
With more than 5,000 km of coastline and owing to Madagascar’s strategic location across the Mozambique Channel, the porosity of borders and weak controls at formal entry points to the territory has been conducive to forms of transnational and national criminal and illegal activities that can ripple inland and throughout the region. Effective and efficient border management remains essential to ensure border security, reinforce the fight against transnational organized crime, and enhance protection of vulnerable migrants.
IOM works with the Ministry of Public Security and other key border agencies such as Customs to build the capacity of frontline and back office border management officers and to streamline and further coordinate and integrate border management risks assessments and controls. IOM activities include holding regular meetings with lead national counterparts on immigration and border management, raising awareness of the stakeholders on the concept of the integrated border management, conducting border management assessments and improving the technical and material capacities to collect and treat information at the important entry points.
Mainstreaming Migration Programme
It is estimated that more than 100,000 people move from rural areas to the capital, Antananarivo, every year. Unplanned urbanization impacts local development capacities, and it is estimated that between 60 to 70 per cent of all settlements in the capital comprise of informal constructions in slum-like conditions. Increased attention should be given to developing the capacities of formal economic integration and social inclusion of the new settlers, as well as to the development of standardized and practical tools to streamline migration into sustainable urban development planning.
In the effort to integrate migration aspects into the sectors of rural development and urban development, IOM provides quality research and assessment support to national stakeholders. In particular, IOM conducts assessments on the extent of migration mainstreaming in the sectors of rural development and urban development, supports the development of strategies related to migration governance in the context of urban development, and assists in the implementation of operational responses to the challenge of inclusion of migrants in urban areas.
- US Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TiP)
- IOM Development Fund (IDF)
- French Embassy in Antananarivo
- United Nations Peacebuilding Fund (PBF)
- Government of Japan
- Australian Aid
- United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)
- European Union
- Ravilana Airports
Last updated: February 2021